Steam crack

Steam cracking is a petrochemical process in which saturated hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller, often unsaturated, hydrocarbons. It is the principal industrial method for producing the lighter alkenes or commonly olefinsincluding ethene or ethylene and propene or propylene. Steam cracker units are facilities in which a feedstock such as naphtha, liquefied petroleum gas LPGethanepropane or butane is thermally cracked through the use of steam in steam cracking furnaces to produce lighter hydrocarbons.

The propane dehydrogenation process may be accomplished through different commercial technologies. The main differences between each of them concerns the catalyst employed, design of the reactor and strategies to achieve higher conversion rates.

Olefins are useful precursors to myriad products. Steam cracking is the core technology that supports the largest scale chemical processes, i. In steam cracking, a gaseous or liquid hydrocarbon feed like naphthaLPGor ethane is diluted with steam and briefly heated in a furnace in the absence of oxygen.

The reaction occurs rapidly: the residence time is on the order of milliseconds. Flow rates approach the speed of sound. After the cracking temperature has been reached, the gas is quickly quenched to stop the reaction in a transfer line heat exchanger or inside a quenching header using quench oil. The products produced in the reaction depend on the composition of the feed, the hydrocarbon-to-steam ratio, and on the cracking temperature and furnace residence time.

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Light hydrocarbon feeds such as ethaneLPGs, or light naphtha give mainly lighter alkenes, including ethylene, propylene, and butadiene. Heavier hydrocarbon full range and heavy naphthas as well as other refinery products feeds give some of these same products, but also those rich in aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons suitable for inclusion in gasoline or fuel oil.

A higher cracking temperature also referred to as severity favors the production of ethene and benzenewhereas lower severity produces higher amounts of propeneC4-hydrocarbons and liquid products.

The process also results in the slow deposition of cokea form of carbonon the reactor walls. This degrades the efficiency of the reactor, so reaction conditions are designed to minimize this. Nonetheless, a steam cracking furnace can usually only run for a few months at a time between de-cokings.

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This converts the hard solid carbon layer to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Once this reaction is complete, the furnace can be returned to service. Since ethylene production is energy intensive, much effort has been dedicated to recovering heat from the gas leaving the furnaces. Most of the energy recovered from the cracked gas is used to make high pressure psig steam.

This steam is in turn used to drive the turbines for compressing cracked gas, the propylene refrigeration compressor, and the ethylene refrigeration compressor.

An ethylene plant, once running, does not need to import steam to drive its steam turbines. A typical world scale ethylene plant about 1. Several proprietary designs are available under a license that must be purchased from the design developer by any petroleum refining company desiring to construct and operate a Steam Cracking unit of a given design.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. Linde Engineering. Methylcyclopropane Methylcyclobutane Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclohexane Isopropylcyclohexane.Sign in to add this item to your wishlist, follow it, or mark it as not interested.

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Cracking (chemistry)

Recently Updated Browse All. From developers and publishers that you know Browse all.In petrochemistrypetroleum geology and organic chemistrycracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon -carbon bonds in the precursors. The rate of cracking and the end products are strongly dependent on the temperature and presence of catalysts.

Cracking is the breakdown of a large alkane into smaller, more useful alkenes. Simply put, hydrocarbon cracking is the process of breaking a long-chain of hydrocarbons into short ones. This process requires high temperatures. More loosely, outside the field of petroleum chemistry, the term "cracking" is used to describe any type of splitting of molecules under the influence of heat, catalysts and solvents, such as in processes of destructive distillation or pyrolysis.

Fluid catalytic cracking produces a high yield of petrol and LPGwhile hydrocracking is a major source of jet fuelDiesel fuelnaphthaand again yields LPG. Among several variants of thermal cracking methods variously known as the " Shukhov cracking process ", " Burton cracking process ", "Burton-Humphreys cracking process", and "Dubbs cracking process" Vladimir Shukhova Russian engineer, invented and patented the first in Russian Empire, patent no. Humphreys independently developed and patented a similar process as U.

Among its advantages was the fact that both the condenser and the boiler were continuously kept under pressure. In its earlier versions it was a batch process, rather than continuous, and many patents were to follow in the US and Europe, though not all were practical. Sinclair Oil apparently wished to suggest that the patent of Burton and Humphreys, in use by Standard Oil, was derived from Shukhov's patent for oil cracking, as described in the Russian patent.

If that could be established, it could strengthen the hand of rival American companies wishing to invalidate the Burton-Humphreys patent. In the event Shukhov satisfied the Americans that in principle Burton's method closely resembled his patents, though his own interest in the matter was primarily to establish that "the Russian oil industry could easily build a cracking apparatus according to any of the described systems without being accused by the Americans of borrowing for free".

At that time, just a few years after the Russian Revolution and brutal Russian Civil Warthe Soviet Union was desperate to develop industry and earn foreign exchange, so their oil industry eventually did obtain much of their technology from foreign companies, largely American. The replacement was not complete; many types of cracking, including pure thermal cracking, still are in use, depending on the nature of the feedstock and the products required to satisfy market demands.

Thermal cracking remains important, for example in producing naphtha, gas oil, and coke, and more sophisticated forms of thermal cracking have been developed for various purposes.

steam crack

These include visbreakingsteam crackingand coking. Modern high-pressure thermal cracking operates at absolute pressures of about 7, kPa. An overall process of disproportionation can be observed, where "light", hydrogen-rich products are formed at the expense of heavier molecules which condense and are depleted of hydrogen. The actual reaction is known as homolytic fission and produces alkeneswhich are the basis for the economically important production of polymers.

Two extremes of the thermal cracking in terms of product range are represented by the high-temperature process called "steam cracking" or pyrolysis ca. Shortly thereafter, inC. Steam cracking is a petrochemical process in which saturated hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller, often unsaturated, hydrocarbons.Sign in to add this item to your wishlist, follow it, or mark it as not interested.

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